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Definition of mechanical properties of materials

Property of the material is the key term which helps us to identify the characteristics s of material and utilise it in application to get most out of it with minimum efforts. Just like length, width and height, of an object, a material also possesses certain characteristics which make them different from another. Here is the list of some basic definition of mechanical properties of materials.


Definition of mechanical properties of materials

Definition of mechanical properties of materials



When the material is deformed under the action of external force, it tries to regain its original shape after removal of that force. This mechanical property of the materials is called elasticity.

If body regains its shape completely as before, then it is called a perfectly elastic body.

Elastic limit: It is the point beyond which body will not regain its original shape even after removal of the external force. This results in permanent deformation in that body.

Copper, Aluminium, and steel are considered elastic body within a certain limit.



This is inverse of elasticity. The material undergoes inelastic strain when the external force is applied. This is because of plasticity. This is helpful in forging and pressing industry as it helps us to identify materials which are easy to deform.



A material is ductile when it can be drawn into the wire under the action of tensile force.

A ductile material posses a high degree of plasticity as they are easily deformed. The ductile material has a low degree of elasticity. This is helpful in wire drawing industry.



It is lack of ductility. A brittle material cannot be drawn into wire but it fails under the action of external force without any significant deformation. Glass, concrete and cast iron are some examples of brittle material.



If a material can be extended in all direction without any rupture, then it is called malleable material. A malleable material posses a high degree of plasticity but does not have enough strength.



It is the ability of a material to absorb energy without fracture. Material under cyclic and shock loading need to be tough. Bend test is done to identify toughness of the material.



Hardness is the ability of the material to resist surface abrasion or indentation. A Brinell number is the indication of the hardness of any material.



Strength is the property of a material which enables it to resist fracture under load. This is most important property as it helps us to identify load value under which material will fail.



This is all about the definition of mechanical properties of materials.

3 Comments on "Definition of mechanical properties of materials"

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